1. Christ is a doer and fulfiller of the covenant of works most exactly in all points, both the command, and the curse and penalty of the Covenant, is satisfied by him; this is works, and this was the condition required upon his part, Heb. 10.7, Then said I, lo I come, in the volume of the book it is written of me, to do thy will, O God. Gal. 3.13, Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the Law, being made a curse for us.
2. Christ as a doer and obedient fulfiller of the Law, hath a reward in Justice by the promise of this Covenant: For (I humbly conceive) he had his reward of debt, and merit, having paid a condign price to the Justice of God; therefore his reward is due to him, by commutative Justice, Phil. 2.7,8, But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of man; And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the Cross; wherefore God also hath highly exalted him, and is craved by him, John. 17.4,5, I have glorified thee on earth, I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do. And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self.
But Graciousness is attributed to the Covenant of Redemption:
1. Efficiently, or in regard of the efficient cause thereof; the spring whence it came was Grace, pure Grace, and nothing else made it and gave it a being; it was not only an act of will, pleasure, freedom and sovereignty; but an act of gracious will, andthe good pleasure of his will, that made it, Eph. 1.5. Col. 1.19.
2. Graciousness is attributed to this Covenant ultimately, in regard that the ultimate end and scope thereof is the manifesting the glory of the richness and freeness of Grace; tis a design of Grace that is driven and carried on in the Covenant of Redemption, Eph. 1.6, To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath made us accepted in the beloved. 2 Tim. 1.9,Who hath saved us, and called us with an holy calling; not according to our works, but according to his own purpose and grace which was given us in Christ Jesus before the world began.
3. Graciousness is attributed to the Covenant of Redemption, because Grace was in it fundamentally; the whole contrivance and dispensation of Grace is bottomed upon this eternal transaction, and turns upon the hinge of this Compact betwixt Jehovah and Christ; therefore all the mercies and faithfulness of the Lord that we are made to sing of within time, are laid upon this foundation, Psalm 89.1-3, I will sing of the mercies of the Lord for ever, with my mouth will I make known thy faithfulness to all generations. For I have said, mercy shall be built up for ever, thy faithfulness shalt thou establish in the very heavens. I have made a Covenant with my chosen.
4. Graciousness may be attributed to the Covenant of Redemption, because Grace was here originally; for here the first draughts of pure, sovereign, free Grace, and the unsearchable riches thereof, were drawn and portrayed; here is fountain-Grace, and from thence came the streams; here were the beginnings of that noble design of Grace laid, and from hence did they come forth, Col. 1.26,27, Even the mystery which had been hid from ages and from generations; but now is made manifest to his Saints. To whom God would make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.
5. Graciousness is attributed to the Covenant of Redemption, because Grace is here comprehensively; even all that God hath been driving and acting upon the spirits of his people, by the Gospel-covenant and Ordinances thereof, and the work of his Spirit since the beginning of the world; and all that he shall do, until the day that the ransomed and redeemed company be perfected; even the whole plot of Grace, is all comprised in this eternal transaction with Christ, and to it are we led as the comprehension of all Covenant-grace and mercy, Isa. 55.3, Incline your ear and come unto me, hear, and your soul shall live; and I will make with you an everlasting Covenant, even the sure mercies of David.
6. Graciousness is attributed to this Covenant, because Grace is here eminently; and indeed if the comparison might be fitly made, pure Gospel free Grace is more in the Covenant of Redemption, than in the Covenant of Reconciliation; for 'tis in the Covenant of Redemption principally, as water is in the fountain; and in the Covenant of Reconciliation by participation, and consequentially; because God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself by that Covenant; therefore he is now in Christ reconciling the world to himself by this Covenant of reconciliation, 2 Cor. 5.19-21, God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them, and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled unto God; for he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be the righteousness of God in him.
7. Graciousness is attributed to the Covenant of Redemption, because Grace was therein exemplarily; for hereby God did act Grace in Christ, and made him a Samplar, and the first copy of free Grace to all his brethren, seed and heirs, that they might share with him, upon whom the first acts of eternal Covenant-love, and Grace fell, and that God might shew forth in him a pattern of Covenant-dealings, and out-lettings of Covenant-favour and promises, Psalm 89.26, He shall cry unto me, thou art my father, my God, and the rock of my salvation. With Heb. 1.5. For unto which of the Angels said he at any time, thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son. Gal. 4.6, And because ye are Sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, father. Col. 1.18, And he is the head of the body, the Church, who is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in all things he might have the preeminence. Rom. 8.17, And if children, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ, if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together.
3. Another Property of the Covenant of Redemption, is Eternity: For,
1. Both the Parties are eternal, the eternal God who is from everlasting to everlasting, Deut. 33.27. and the eternal Son of God, whose eternal power and Godhead, Rom. 1.20, is equal with God his Father. Phil. 2.6, And who shall declare his generation? Isa. 53.8. John 1.1,2, In the beginning the word was, and the word was with God, and the word was God, the same was in the beginning with God. Rev. 1.8, I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, saith the Lord; which is, which was, and which is to come.
2. The union of the two natures in the Person of the Redeemer, which was transacted in this Covenant, is an eternal union; I mean, the human nature, which was from eternity designed unto a substantial union with God; being once assumed, stands in that substantial union for ever; so that it is impossible that the personal union which was transacted in the Covenant of Redemption, can be dissolved unto all eternity: for 'tis unquestionable that Christ shall stand glorified in our nature in heaven for ever; for even there is a throne for the man Christ, for the Lamb slain, for ever, Rev. 22.3, But the throne of God, and of the lamb, shall be in it, Acts 17.31.
3. The New Covenant-relations which were established betwixt Jehovah and Christ, by this Covenant of Redemption, are eternal relations, which shall never cease, Heb. 1.5, For unto which of the Angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son. This Covenant-relation (I say) whereby God is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and whereby he hath a new Sonship, 1 Pet. 1.3, Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ: Even this, shall stand eternally; therefore Christ speaking of the promised glorious state of his people in heaven, doth four times own that Covenant-relation to his Father, even with respect to his and their being together in his Kingdom, Rev. 3.12, Him that overcometh, will I make a pillar in the temple of my God, and he shall go no more out: and I will write upon him the name of my God, and the name of the city of my God, which is new Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from my God; and I will write upon him my new name. And if our Covenant-relation to God which did spring out of his, shall stand, and not cease in our glorified state in heaven, much more his, Rev. 5.10, And hast made us unto our God Kings and Priests, and we shall reign on the earth. There the redeemed Musicians, that have the new Song in their mouths, own their Covenant-relation to God, and the Covenant-compellation, our God, is a note in their new Song.
4. The offices which Christ did take on by this Covenant, are eternal offices, such as shall never cease, and whereof he shall never be divested; that his Mediatory-office, his Kingdom and Priesthood, are partakers of the eternity of this Covenant, is plain Scripture, Luke 1.33, And he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end.Heb. 1.8., But unto the Son, he saith, thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever, a scepter of righteousness is the scepter of thy kingdom. And 5.6, Thou art a priest for ever, after the order of Melchisedec. And 7.25, Wherefore he is able also to save them to the uttermost that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. The only question is, whether or not this Covenant shall then cease, and Christ's Mediatory- office shall then cease, when Christ shall render up the Kingdom to the Father? 1 Cor. 15.24-29.